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We found a strong decrease in circulating TST levels in Sema7A ko compared to wild-type (wt) mice (Fig. TST acts either directly, via binding to androgen receptor (Ar), or through its aromatization, by activating Er1 and Er2 oestrogen receptors.

These neural circuits include several nuclei of the vomeronasal system (VNS) and hypothalamus, and the integration of pheromonal and endocrine signals in these circuits is required to regulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and thus reproduction.

Pheromones and sex hormones are also key regulators of adult neurogenesis, the process of the continuous generation of new neurons that occurs in restricted regions of the adult brain, namely the olfactory bulb (OB) and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.

Overall, these data highlight adult neurogenesis as a hub for the integration of pheromonal and hormonal cues that control sex-specific responses in brain circuits., which include the investigation of and approach towards the opposite sex.

Appropriate reproductive responses to pheromones are triggered by the action of gonadal hormones on brain circuits, whose sex-specific organization is established early during a developmental critical period.

Here, we show that in the Sema7A ko males, as well as in wild-type males castrated during adulthood, the level of circulating TST in adult animals plays a critical role in modulating pheromone-induced adult neurogenesis in the AOB and, in turn, neuronal activity in downstream VNS nuclei that control sex-specific reproductive responses.


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