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In software, systems and networks testing, and sometimes penetration testing, referer spoofing is often just part of a larger procedure of transmitting both accurate and inaccurate and both expected and unexpected input to the HTTPD system being tested and observing the results.
While many web sites are configured to gather referer information and serve different content depending on the referer information obtained, exclusively relying on HTTP referer information for authentication and authorization purposes is not a genuine computer security measure.
HTTP referer information is freely alterable and interceptable, and is not a password, though some poorly configured systems treat it as such.
Some websites, especially many image hosting sites, use referer information to secure their materials: only browsers arriving from their web pages are served images.
Additionally a site may want users to click through pages with advertising content before directly being able to access a downloadable file — using the referring page or referring site information can help a site redirect unauthorized users to the landing page the site would like to use.
If attackers acquire knowledge of these approved referers, which is often trivial because many sites follow a common template, they can use that information combined with this exploit to gain access to the materials.
Spoofing often allows access to a site's content where the site's web server is configured to block browsers that do not send referer headers. It can also be used to defeat referer checking controls that are used to mitigate Cross-Site Request Forgery attacks.